The energy storage is the act of placing a quantity of energy in a given place to allow its subsequent use. By extension, the term “energy storage” is often used to describe the storage of material that contains this energy.Control of energy storage is particularly important to develop alternative energies such as wind or solar , safe and renewable, but inherently intermittent. There is many solve to stock energy :

Electrical battery

The electricity is an energy and a secondary energy carrier , that is to say, it results from the conversion of primary energy. Once produced it is instantly consumed or lost. It is not directly storable (except in a capacitor ), and must be converted to another form of energy to be stored.

Storing large amounts of electricity with electrochemical storage giant has never been realized. The electrochemical storage are generally heavy, expensive, have a limited life and pose problems of pollution ( acids and heavy metals ) at their end of life, and sometimes even fire or explosion when fate of their normal use.

By cons, many home systems disconnected from the electricity distribution network is based on the use of accumulator battery or batteries . In practice, they are useful for small devices appliances or airborne electronic equipment.

Recently a renewed interest in vehicles with low or no pollutant gases has revived the creation of electric vehicles :bicycles and cars running completely through this type of energy or as hybrid (electricity to supplement fossil fuel).

The capacitors of medium and large capacity, so-called chemical capacitors and ” SuperCap “are another use of electrochemical systems to store energy. Their use is very common in appliances and machinery electrical with or without electronic board.

Storage hydraulic

 

The dams provide water reserves which fell in pipes, operate the turbines supplying energy to mechanical generators of electricity.

A system optimization is to reuse the water stored or end of a river at the foot of the hydroelectric plant. Storage for pumped storage (also called STEP: Energy Transfer Station by pumping) is used to equalize the daily load (that is to say the need for electricity): water is pumped and up towards the dams of altitude when demand on the network is low (during peak hours and weekend for example), using the surplus production of energy sources, non-adjustable ( nuclear , solar , wind , …) ; during peak consumption, the water goes down under pressure and produce electricity again.

This is the same device electromechanical reversible, which produces electricity in turbines to go up or consumes water by pumping. The yield is good (around 80% across the plant, taking into account the losses in the pipe, engine performance / alternators, pumps / turbines and transformers). However, relatively few suitable places: with storage dams of sufficient size and with a large height difference between the dams / water reservoirs above and below.

It also uses a variant of this device in the tidal power plant of the Rance (France): at high tide, we do not just passively storing water is pumped also to increase the pool, this water is released to advantageously low tide (one goes up the water a few meters, by using against the potential drop over a dozen meters higher)

Compressed Air

We can use the compressed air to produce mechanical work, therefore it is possible to store energy by compressing a gas (usually with a compressor driven by electrical energy available). The performance will be poor, because the compression results in a heating of the gas, except to recover the heat (cogeneration heat + air) . One such system is being developed by the company Enairys .

On a larger scale, can be used underground caves or old mines to store compressed air. When there is a strong demand for electricity, air is used that was previously compressed and stored in order to move a turbine with a generator that produces electricity. Facilities of this type have been implemented or are planned to McIntosh in Alabama (USA) , in Iowaand Germany , although the yield is only about 40%.

A variant of this system for storing compressed air in a tank deep submarine (1000-2000 m), is developing in the UK with the support of electricity producer E.ON .

A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of photovoltaic cells.

Panels (arrays of photvoltaic cells) make use of renewable energy from the sun, and are a clean and environmentally sound means of collecting solar energy.

The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications.

Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, many installations contain several panels. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and interconnection wiring.

Advantages

Solar energy is inexhaustible, unlike fossil fuels such as coal or oil which are used even though the sun.
For remote locations or small installations, nothing like the solar panels to make them utonomous. Indeed, a site connected to the EDF grid costs 30 000 € / km.
Solar panels, once installed, require very little maintenance andenergy is produced without uman action.
Solar energy is subsidized by the state. In the case of a domestic installation, up to 60% of installation cost can be reimbursed.
In addition, solar panels are still little used and have a high degree of evolution and a promising future.
Solar panels can be a great investment for individuals.
Solar panels are silent and not disruptive to neighboring residents.

Disadvantages

Solar energy is not competitive when it comes to production of energy. Indeed, some such as nuclear energy are much more cost efficient. All the world’s energy needs can not be supplied by solar energy.
A solar panel has a lifespan of 25 years, in addition, yields are declining rapidly. Moreover, it takes 3 years to the panel to produce energy that was used for its construction.
Energy production is irregular, due to climatic hazards. The panels produce much in the summer but the needs are low..Instead,of energy production is lower in winter when the needs are high.
Solar energy produces in and day depending on the weather, and not according to energy needs. This means investing in ways to store energy very expensive.
The high cost of both solar panels but also the necessary facilities as the means of energy storage.
The size of facilities:: we must indeed large areas of solar panels to produce energy.

Wind turbines are used to generate electricity from the wind. Historical they were more frequently used as a mechanical device to turn machinery. Wind turbines can be used to generate energy in wind farms both onshore and offshore. I notice a video : How wind turbines work !

Since the 1990s, the technological improvement of wind helped to build wind turbines over 5 MV and the development of wind turbines of 10 MW is in progress. These units have democratized and we found today in many countries. These turbines are used today to produce alternating current to power grids, just like a nuclear reactor , a dam hydro-electric or thermal power station coal. However, the power generated and the impact on the environment are not the same.

End of 2010, 193 GW of wind power are installed worldwide . In 2010, China invested $ 63 billion in wind energy, the U.S. $ 18 billion. The growth of investment in wind power was 34% in 2010 . As for power, it increased by 22% in 2010 (35.8 GW).

I think the wind energy is a possible way too devellop green energy in world. Wind turbine have many advantages.

I’ll try to explain the form of energy that are currently imppossible.
One of the main criteria for choosing one form of energy is firstly the impact it will have on the envirronnement. The main indicator is the emission of CO ² into the atmosphere

Here is a scenario of CO ² after coring in the North Pole. There is also an estimate of emissions based on human activity
We realize that our Energy consumption is dramatic (without taking into account other polluting Activities)

The other criterion for the selection of energy production technologies is the availabilities of raw materials. Currently the two most used energy in the world are coal and oil. In addition oil provides almost all the liquid fuels. The trend is a decrease in oil discoveries since 1965. Today, the amount of oil discovered each year represent approximately one third of world production. Nevertheless, significantly lower volumes available: many countries are being develloppement first and uses this mater increasingly rare.

The use of coal is even worse because it contains direct CO ². The burning for energy production back to create directly from s emissions of greenhouse gases emissions.

A company called “developed” must be able to support himself by dramatically reducing the use of fossil fuels

To escape the oil, the different tracks are:
     Energy efficiency
     Biofuels, wood
     Nuclear power.
     Renewable energy such as hydro, solar and wind energy, heat pumps and geothermal.

Take into consideration that the developement countries can not afford to make this type of installation. It is suitable for countries with the capacity

 

We can decompose these companies into two camps: The nuclear industry and renewable energy industries


Nuclear industry

AREVA is a multinational industrial conglomerate headquartered in Paris. AREVA is an important industry known for nuclear power. AREVA NP is in charge of building the EPR, an advanced nuclear reactor with Siemens. AREVA is a conglomerate of various companies of the French industrial giant The Schneider Group along with Empain, Merlin Gérin, and the American Westinghouse. Areva conceive and build nuclear reactors as well as products and services necessary for the operation, maintenance, modernization of power plants. It also includes the manufacture of nuclear reactors for naval propulsion and research reactors.

Form: http://www.areva.com/

CEA is a public establishment related to industrial activities whose mission is to develop all applications of nuclear power, (civilian or military). The CEA is an equivalent to those of the United States Department of Energy. It develops fundamental and applied research into the design of nuclear reactors for example. They optimize the current fleet of nuclear reactors and to develop technical solutions he reprocessing of of radioactive waste.It participates in international research programs on reactors and nuclear fuel of the future that will ensure production cheaper, safer and less waste.

Form: http://www.cea.fr/

Renewable energy industries

General Electric Company is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in New York and headquartered in Connecticut,

In 2005 GE launch a program called “Ecomagination,”  In the words of CEO Jeff Immelt : the objective of the program is : “to develop tomorrow’s solutions such as solar energy, hybrid locomotives, fuel cells, lower-emission aircraft engines, lighter and stronger durable materials, efficient lighting, and water purification technology”.

Form: http://www.genewscenter.com/content/detail.aspx?releaseid=1992&newsareaid=2&menusearchcategoryid=

Nuclear energy,was discovered by Henri Becquerel. Now nuclear reactor are use to generate nuclear power. The Uranium is used to produce energy in the reactor. And the global issue is the radioactivity of this material. What are the disadvantages and the advantages of nuclear energy ?

 The advantages are the energy produce by the power plant and the absence of release of greenhouse gases ( No release of carbon DI-oxide for example ) And more there is an high amount of energy by power plant.

The main disadvantages is the trade of uranium use in the nuclear weapons. It is difficult to develop nuclear power plant. And the nuclear reactions is highly radioactive.

I thinks only the future will make it clear if the nuclear energy is a possible solution

Link : http://library.thinkquest.org/3471/nuclear_energy_body.html

 Hello !

The nuclear power plant is not the most popular electricity sources but this is in France the first means of production. Many controversy about the safety and the nuclear fission reactors existing. It is not the subject of this post !

For the moment how a nuclear power plant work? It is necessary to understand the advantages and the inconvenient of the nuclear subject.

I have found a video with many animations to explain the concept.

Hello  !

I will introduce you to the production of the energy in France. 

The energy is everywhere in your life.  You use electricity to watch television or to go on the internet. Currently, anything need electricity but how many people know the mean of production?   In my opinion it is important to know how EDF produce this energy : nuclear power plant, renewable energy….  I think this subject  will be the most important in the future.

In this blog, I will present the production of electricity in France. I will describe the means to stock electricity in France.  In finally, I will describe the limit of  the energy production : the validation of the nuclear test and the limit of the renewable system.

 

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